|Image courtesy of netterimages.com|
NCP Nursing Care Plans For Amebiasis. Also called amoebic dysentery, Amebiasis can take the form of either an acute or a chronic protozoal infection. Extraintestinal Amebiasis can induce hepatic abscess and infection of the lungs, pleural cavity, pericardium, peritoneum and, rarely, the brain. Amebiasis occurs worldwide; about 90% of infections are asymptomatic and the rest produce symptoms ranging from amoebic dysentery to abscesses of the liver and other organs. It's the third most common cause of death from paralytic disease, after schistosomiasis and malaria. It's most common in the tropics, subtropics, and other areas with poor sanitation and health practices.
Causes For Amebiasis
Amebiasis is caused by Entamoeba histolytica. This protozoan has two stages: during the cystic stage, it can survive outside the body; during the trophozoite stage, it can't
Complications For Amebiasis
Amebiasis can cause chronic, recurrent episodes of diarrhea and abdominal pain, ameboma, megacolon, intussusception, extraintestinal abscesses, and intestinal stricture, hemorrhage, or perforation. Rarely, it causes a brain abscess, which is usually fatal
Nursing Assessment Nursing Care Plans For Amebiasis
The patient may have a history of recent travel to an area with poor sanitation, sexual practices involving oral-anal contact, eating or drinking suspect food or water, or institutionalization.
The patient's signs and symptoms vary with the severity of the infestation, from no symptoms or mild diarrhea to fulminating dysentery.
If the patient has acute amebiasis, he may complain of chills and abdominal cramping; profuse, bloody diarrhea with tenesmus; and diffuse abdominal tenderness (caused by extensive rectosigmoid ulcers). He also develops a sudden high fever, with a temperature of 104Â° to 105Â° F (40Â° to 40.5Â° C).
A patient with chronic amebiasis may report intermittent diarrhea that lasts for 1 to 4 weeks and recurs several times a year. Such diarrhea produces 4 to 8 (or, in severe diarrhea, up to 18) foul-smelling mucous- and blood-tinged stools daily. The patient may also report vague abdominal cramps and, possibly, weight loss. Any fever he has is mild.
Inspection may reveal perianal ulceration and systemic signs of dehydration or anemia. Palpation may reveal diffuse abdominal tenderness and hepatomegaly. Auscultation of the abdomen may disclose hyperactive bowel sounds, particularly in the lower quadrants, when the patient has acute diarrhea.
Nursing diagnosis Nursing Care Plans For Amebiasis
Common nursing diagnosis found in Nursing Care Plans For Amebiasis:
• Acute pain
• Deficient fluid volume
• Imbalanced nutrition: Less than body requirements
• Impaired skin integrity
• Risk for infection
Nursing outcomes Nursing Care Plans For Amebiasis
Nursing outcomes patient will:
• The patient will express feelings of comfort and relief from pain.
• The patient's electrolyte levels will stay within normal range.
• The patient's elimination pattern will return to normal.
• The patient will report an increased energy level.
• The patient will remain afebrile.
• The patient will experience no further weight loss.
• The patient will avoid skin breakdown or infection.
• The patient will experience no further signs or symptoms of infection.
Nursing Interventions Nursing Care Plans For Amebiasis
- Pain Management: Alleviation of pain or a reduction in pain to a level of comfort that is acceptable to the patient
- Analgesic Administration: Use of pharmacologic agents to reduce or eliminate pain
- Environmental Management: Comfort: Manipulation of the patient’s surroundings for promotion of optimal comfort
- Fluid Management: Promotion of fluid balance and prevention of complications resulting from abnormal or undesired fluid levels
- Hypovolemia Management: Reduction in extracellular and/or intracellular fluid volume and prevention of complications in a patient who is fluid overloaded
- Shock Management: Volume: Promotion of adequate tissue perfusion for a patient with severely compromised intravascular volume.
- Diarrhea Management: Management and alleviation of diarrhea
- Fluid Monitoring: Collection and analysis of patient data to regulate fluid balance
- Perineal Care: Maintenance of perineal skin integrity and relief of perineal discomfort
- Energy Management: Regulating energy use to treat or prevent fatigue and optimize function
- Exercise Promotion: Facilitation of regular physical exercise to maintain or advance to a higher level of fitness and health
- Temperature Regulation: Attaining and/or maintaining body temperature within a normal range.
- Fever Treatment: Management of a patient with hyperpyrexia caused by nonenvironmental factors.
- Nutrition Management: Assisting with or providing a balanced dietary intake of foods and fluids
- Weight Gain Assistance: Facilitating gain of body weight
- Eating Disorders Management: Prevention and treatment of severe diet restrictions and over exercising or binging and purging of foods and fluids
- Pressure Ulcer Care: Facilitation of healing in pressure ulcers
- Infection Protection: Prevention and early detection of infection in a patient at risk
- Infection Control: Minimizing the acquisition and transmission of infectious agents
- Surveillance: Purposeful and ongoing acquisition, interpretation, and synthesis of patient data for clinical decision making
Patient Teaching discharge and Home Health Guidance for Patient with Amebiasis
- Teach the patient about amebicide therapy, including precautions he should take and adverse effects of the medication
- Encourage the patient to return for follow-up appointments at scheduled intervals.
- Teach the patient and his family how to handle infectious material and about the need for careful hand washing.
- Advise travelers to endemic areas and campers to boil untreated or contaminated water to prevent the disease.