Sunday, March 13, 2011

NCP Nursing Care Plans for Common Cold

NCP Nursing Care Plans for Common Cold. The common cold is an acute, usually afebrile, viral infection that causes inflammation of the upper respiratory tract. It's the most common infectious disease and is more prevalent in children, adolescent boys, and females. In temperate climates, it occurs more often in the colder months; in the tropics, during the rainy season.

Causes for Common Cold

About 90% of colds stem from a viral infection of the upper respiratory tract passages and consequent mucous membrane inflammation. The most common causative agent is the rhinovirus; however, some colds result from Mycoplasma. Other offenders include coronaviruses, myxoviruses, adenoviruses, coxsackieviruses, and echoviruses.

Complications for Common Cold
Secondary bacterial infection may occur, causing sinusitis, otitis media, pharyngitis, or lower respiratory tract infection

Nursing Assessment Nursing Care Plans for Common Cold
Assess patient’s exposure to others with the common cold. Patient usually complains of nasal congestion, headache, and burning, watery eyes. He may also report chills, myalgia, arthralgia, malaise, lethargy, and a hacking, nonproductive, or nocturnal cough. Most patients are afebrile, although fever may occur, especially in children.Clinical features develop more fully as the cold progresses. By the second day (in addition to initial symptoms), the patient may report a copious nasal discharge that often irritates the nose, adding to his discomfort. About 3 days after onset, major symptoms diminish, but congestion often persists for a week. Reinfection (with productive cough) is common, but complications are rare.
• Inspection may reveal a reddened nose and eyes and nasal discharge. The nasal and pharyngeal mucous membranes may exhibit increased erythema, and the patient's voice may have a nasal quality. The skin around the nose may be excoriated because of frequent nose blowing.

Nursing diagnosis Nursing Care Plans for Common Cold
Common nursing diagnosis found in Nursing Care Plans for Common Cold

  • Acute pain
  • Fatigue
  • Hyperthermia
  • Ineffective airway clearance
  • Ineffective breathing pattern
  • Risk for infection

Nursing outcomes Nursing Care Plans for Common Cold

  • The patient will be free from pain.
  • The patient will report increased energy.
  • The patient will remain afebrile.
  • The patient will expectorate sputum effectively.
  • The patient will express feelings of comfort in maintaining air exchange.
  • The patient will experience no further signs or symptoms of infection.

Nursing Interventions Nursing Care Plans for Common Cold

  • Pain Management
  • Administer analgesics, as indicated
  • Energy Management: Regulating energy use to treat or prevent fatigue and optimize function
  • Exercise Promotion: Facilitation of regular physical exercise to maintain or advance to a higher level of fitness and health
  • Nutrition Management: Assisting with or providing a balanced dietary intake of foods and fluids
  • Temperature Regulation: Attaining and/or maintaining body temperature within a normal range.
  • Fever Treatment: Management of a patient with hyperpyrexia caused by nonenvironmental factors.
  • Malignant Hyperthermia Precautions: Prevention or reduction of hypermetabolic response to pharmacological agents used during surgery
  • Maintain airway patency.
  • Expectorate/clear secretions readily.
  • Demonstrate absence/reduction of congestion with breath sounds clear, respirations noiseless, improved oxygen exchange
  • Infection Protection: Prevention and early detection of infection in a patient at risk
  • Infection Control: Minimizing the acquisition and transmission of infectious agents
  • Surveillance: Purposeful and ongoing acquisition, interpretation, and synthesis of patient data for clinical decision making

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