Angina pectoris is a symptom of ischemic heart disease that is characterized by paroxysmal and usually recurring substernal or precordial chest pain or discomfort. It’s caused by an imbalance between myocardial oxygen supply and demand and decreased myocardial perfusion. Either can be caused by a primary decrease in coronary blood flow or by a disproportionate increase in myocardial oxygen requirements. Blood flow through the coronary arteries is partially or completely obstructed because of coronary artery spasm, fixed stenosing plaques, disrupted plaques, thrombosis, platelet aggregation, and embolization.
Causes of Angina pectoris
Most angina pectoris caused by atherosclerosis, which is the most common cause of coronary artery disease (CAD). However, it may occur in patients with normal coronary arteries.
Classification and Sign and symptoms of Angina Pectoris
Chronic Stable Angina: The most common anginal syndrome, described as a discomfort, pressure, or squeezing sensation and burning, sticking, or sharp with few minutes duration Chronic Stable Angina location often in the substernal area, precardium, or epigastrium with radiation to the left arm, jaw, or neck
Unstable Angina Pectoris, is a combination of syndromes which have been referred to by various names, such as preinfarction angina, impending myocardial infarction, progressive or crescendo angina, coronary insufficiency, new onset angina, etc.Usually in patients with Unstable Angina Pectoris presents in one or more of three patterns:
- Angina pectoris of recent onset (less than 1 month) that is provoked by minimal exertion.
- Chronic stable angina showing a crescendo pattern, with chest pain occurring more frequently, with greater severity and duration, with less provocation, and requiring larger doses of nitroglycerine to abort attacks.
- Prolonged chest pain at rest, clinically indistinguishable from acute MI at the time of presentation.
- Chest x-ray may found cardiomegaly
- Coronary angiography’s
- Coronary Arteriography
- Exercise Stress Testing
Primary Nursing Diagnosis for Angina pectoris
Altered tissue perfusion (myocardial) related to narrowing of the coronary arteries and associated with arteriosclerosis, spasm, or thrombosisCommon Nursing Diagnosis found on nursing care plans for angina pectoris, click here.
Nursing outcome, nursing interventions and patient teaching nursing care plans for angina pectoris, here